Appendix B - NFPA Label Information

 Workplace Labels & NFPA Hazard Rating

As allowed under the HazCom program (GHS rev 2012), NMSU uses a workplace label scheme incorporating the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) rating system.

This system uses an a diamond-shaped diagram of symbols and numbers to indicate the degree of hazard associated with a particular chemical or material. These diamond- shaped symbols are placed on containers of chemicals or materials to identify the degree of hazard associated with the chemical or material. 

The diagram identifies three color-coded categories of hazard for each material:

NFPA rating
  • health hazard (blue sections),

  • flammability (red sections),

  • reactivity (yellow sections), and  

  • other hazard information (white section).

Each category is divided in five levels of hazard potential with

  • zero (0) used to indicate no special hazards and
  • four (4) for severe or extreme hazard potential. 

The degrees of hazard in each of these categories are given as follows:

Health

The degree of health hazard of a chemical or material is based on the form or condition of the material, as well as its inherent properties  (NFPA ratings)..   The degree of health hazard of a material should indicate the degree of personal protective equipment required for working safety with the material:

  1. A rating of 1 is for slightly hazardous (toxic) material which require only minimal protection (for example, safety glasses and gloves) in addition to normal work clothing to work with safely
  2. A rating of 2 is for moderately toxic or hazardous material which require additional PPE or equipment (e.g. chemical goggles, lab/work smock, local ventilation) in addition to that required for less toxic material. Consult the MSDS for specific health hazard and proper PPE to use with this material.
  3. A rating of 3 or 4 is for highly to extremely toxic (deadly) material (and any carcinogen, mutagen, or teratogen).   These materials will require specialized equipment (e.g. respirator (or exhaust hood), full face shield, rubber apron, specialized glove, handling tongs, etc) beyond that required for moderately toxic material. You must consult the MSDS and/or other safety information to determine the hazard (acute or chronic) and the proper PPE and engineering controls to safely use of this material.

Flammability

The flammability hazards deal with the degree of susceptibility of the material to ignite and burn.  The form or condition of the materials, as well as their properties, affects the extent of the hazard.  Many hazardous materials such as acetone and gasoline, have a flash point (ignition temperature) far below freezing and will readily ignite with a spark if the vapor concentration is sufficient. A low rating of 1 is for material with a flash point above 200F while more hazardous ratings of 2, 3, and 4 are for materials with respective flash point below 200, 100 and 73 F. (NFPA ratings)

Reactivity

The reactivity hazards deal with the potential of a material or chemical to release energy.  Some materials are capable of rapid release of energy without any catalyst, while others can undergo violent eruptive or explosive reactions if they come in contact with water or other materials.  Generally this rating is used to indicate the potential to reactive if the material is heated, jarred, or shocked.. A low rating of 1 indicates a material that is normally stable but may be reactive if heated.  The more hazardous ratings of 2, 3, and 4 indicate a material is capable of violent reaction, shock/rapid heating and detonation respectively (NFPA ratings)

Other Hazard Information

An open space at the bottom of the NFPA diagram can be used to indicate additional information about the chemical or material.  This information may include the chemical or material's radioactivity, proper fire extinguishing agent, skin hazard, its use in pressurized containers, protective equipment required, or unusual reactivity with water.  For example, the usual signal to indicate unusual reactivity with water is the letter "W" with a long line through the center. Similarly the words ACID, COR (corrosive), RAD (radiation), OXY (oxidizer), Rad (radioactive), CARC (carcinogen) or other abbreviations may be used.

The following shows a summary of the NFPA rating system used for labeling secondary containers of chemicals. (Click the image for a screen size printable label)

label-NFPA2.jpg (69259 bytes)

NFPA ratings for common chemicals 

a_contact_us_phonelines.gif (11135 bytes)

Fueling Stations & Bulk Product Storage

Per OSHA & NMSU HazCom Policy, the above ground fuel stations and bulk product storage units are secondary containers and shall be labeled with workplace labels.  At a minimum they are to be labeled/signed with

1) compound/fuel name for the contents and
2) rating for the contents for health (blue), fire (red) and reactivity (yellow)

Typical signs with compound/fuel name & UN number are shown below (UN number is optional)



 

The main part of the sign is the NFPA diamond, a four section multicolor diamond shape used to indicate the health, flammability, instability and related hazards presented by short-term, acute exposure to a material during a fire, spill or other emergency-related condition.

More information on the HazCom workplace labels & NFPA704 is available under CHEMICAL SAFETY PROGRAMS on the Safety website at http://safety.nmsu.edu/programs/chem_safety/ 

Lettering & Sign Size:

In order for the numbers on Fueling Stations & Bulk Product Storage to be visible from a minimum distance of 50 -100 ft, the numbers & letters should be at least 1-2 inches high (see chart below).  Sign size will depend on the lettering and hazard but EH&S recommends minimum of 12 by 12 sign area.