Communication Program - Definitions
(abridged from 29CFR1910.1200 Hazard
means any element, chemical compound or mixture of elements and/or compounds.
"Chemical name" means the
scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed
by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) or the Chemical Abstracts
Service (CAS) rules of nomenclature, or a name which will clearly identify the chemical
for the purpose of conducting a hazard evaluation.
"Combustible liquid" means
any liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100 deg. F (37.8 deg. C), but below 200 deg. F
(93.3 deg. C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200 deg. F (93.3
deg. C), or higher, the total volume of which make up 99 percent or more of the total
volume of the mixture.
"Common name" means any
designation or identification such as code name, code number, trade name, brand name or
generic name used to identify a chemical other than by its chemical name.
"Compressed gas" means:
(i) A gas or mixture of gases having,
in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70 deg. F (21.1 deg. C); or
(ii) A gas or mixture of gases
having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130 deg. F (54.4 deg. C)
regardless of the pressure at 70 deg. F (21.1 deg. C); or
(iii) A liquid having a vapor
pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100 deg. F (37.8 deg. C) as determined by ASTM D-323-72.
"Container" means any bag,
barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank, or the like that
contains a hazardous chemical. For purposes of this section, pipes or piping systems, and
engines, fuel tanks, or other operating systems in a vehicle, are not considered to be
"Distributor" means a
business, other than a chemical manufacturer or importer, which supplies hazardous
chemicals to other distributors or to employers.
"Employee" means a worker who
may be exposed to hazardous chemicals under normal operating conditions or in foreseeable
"Employer" means a person
engaged in a business where chemicals are either used, distributed, or are produced for
use or distribution, including a contractor or subcontractor.
"Explosive" means a chemical
that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and heat when
subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature.
or exposed" means that an employee is subjected in the course of employment to a
chemical that is a physical or health hazard, and includes potential (e.g. accidental or
possible) exposure. "Subjected" in terms of health hazards includes any route of
entry (e.g. inhalation, ingestion, skin contact or absorption.)
"Flammable" means a chemical
that falls into one of the following categories:
(i) "Aerosol, flammable"
means an aerosol that, when tested by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.45, yields a
flame projection exceeding 18 inches at full valve opening, or a flashback (a flame
extending back to the valve) at any degree of valve opening;
(ii) "Gas, flammable"
means: (A) A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with
air at a concentration of thirteen (13) percent by volume or less; or (B) A gas that, at
ambient temperature and pressure, forms a range of flammable mixtures with air wider than
twelve (12) percent by volume, regardless of the lower limit;
(iii) "Liquid, flammable"
means any liquid having a flashpoint below 100 deg. F (37.8 deg. C), except any mixture
having components with flashpoints of 100 deg. F (37.8 deg. C) or higher, the total of
which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.
(iv) "Solid, flammable"
means a solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in 1910.109(a), that is
liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical
change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily
and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious hazard. A
chemical shall be considered to be a flammable solid if, when tested by the method
described in 16 CFR 1500.44, it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate
greater than one-tenth of an inch per second along its major axis.
"Flashpoint" means the
minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentration to
ignite when tested as follows:
(i) Tagliabue Closed Tester (See
American National Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Tag Closed Tester,
Z11.24-1979 (ASTM D 56-79)) for liquids with a viscosity of less than 45 Saybolt Universal
Seconds (SUS) at 100 deg. F (37.8 deg. C), that do not contain suspended solids and do not
have a tendency to form a surface film under test; or
(ii) Pensky-Martens Closed Tester (see American
National Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester,
Z11.7-1979 (ASTM D 93-79)) for liquids with a viscosity equal to or greater than 45 SUS at
100 deg. F (37.8 deg. C), or that contain suspended solids, or that have a tendency to
form a surface film under test; or
(iii) Setaflash Closed Tester (see
American National Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Setaflash Closed Tester (ASTM
Organic peroxides, which undergo
autoaccelerating thermal decomposition, are excluded from any of the flashpoint
determination methods specified above.
"Hazardous chemical" means any chemical which is a
physical hazard or a health hazard.
"Hazard warning" means
any words, pictures, symbols, or combination thereof appearing on a label or other
appropriate form of warning which convey the specific physical and health hazard(s),
including target organ effects, of the chemical(s) in the container(s).
"Health hazard" means a
chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study
conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic
health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term "health hazard" includes
chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins,
irritants, corrosives, s sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents
which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or
"Identity" means any
chemical or common name which is indicated on the material safety data sheet (MSDS) for
the chemical. The identity used shall permit cross-references to be made among the
required list of hazardous chemicals, the label and the MSDS.
"Immediate use" means
that the hazardous chemical will be under the control of and used only by the person who
transfers it from a labeled container and only within the work shift in which it is
means any written, printed, or graphic material displayed on or affixed to containers of
"Material safety data sheet
(MSDS)" means written or printed material concerning a hazardous chemical which is
prepared in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section.
"Mixture" means any
combination of two or more chemicals if the combination is not, in whole or in part, the
result of a chemical reaction.
"Organic peroxide" means an
organic compound that contains the bivalent -O-O-structure and which may be considered to
be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms
has been replaced by an organic radical.
"Oxidizer" means a chemical
other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in 1910.109(a), that initiates or
promotes combustion in other materials, thereby causing fire either of itself or through
the release of oxygen or other gases.
"Physical hazard" means a
chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid,
a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric,
unstable (reactive) or water-reactive.
"Pyrophoric" means a chemical that will
ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130 deg. F (54.4 deg. C) or below.
"Responsible party" means someone who
can provide additional information on the hazardous chemical and appropriate emergency
procedures, if necessary.
"Specific chemical identity"
means the chemical name, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number, or any other
information that reveals the precise chemical designation of the substance.
"Trade secret" means any
confidential formula, pattern, process, device, information or compilation of information
that is used in an employer's business, and that gives the employer an opportunity to
obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it. Appendix D sets out the
criteria to be used in evaluating trade secrets.
"Unstable (reactive)" means a
chemical which in the pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigorously
polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shocks,
pressure or temperature.
"Use" means to package, handle, react,
emit, extract, generate as a byproduct, or transfer.
"Water-reactive" means a
chemical that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a
area" means a room or defined space in a workplace where hazardous chemicals are
produced or used, and where employees are present.
"Workplace" means an establishment,
job site, or project, at one geographical location containing one or more work areas.