|First Aid Procedures
Appendix XIII (adapted from NMSU Lab Guide - dls)
First aid is the immediate care of a person who has been injured or has suddenly taken ill. It is intended to prevent death or further illness and injury and to relieve pain until medical aid can be obtained. The objectives of first aid are (1) to control conditions that might endanger life; (2) to prevent further injury; (3) to relieve pain, prevent contamination, and treat for shock; and (4) to make the patient as comfortable as possible.
The initial responsibility for first aid rests with the first person(s) at the scene, who should react quickly but in a calm and reassuring manner. The person assuming responsibility should immediately summon medical help by calling 911 (be explicit in reporting suspected types of injury or illness and requesting assistance). The injured person should not be moved except when they are in significant danger of further injury/death. Laboratory workers should be encouraged to obtain training in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Do not attempt to administer first aid unless you have had proper training.
The following procedures are presented to help guide trained personnel in the event of an emergency and should not be attempted except by trained personnel. In any event the rescuer should call 911 at the earliest possible time to obtain advanced life support assistance from EMS (Emergency Medical Service) personnel. If the patient is unresponsive and not breathing mouth-to-mouth resuscitation should begin immediately. Any delay increases the risk of serious disability or death.
HEART (CARDIAC) RESUSCITATION
Only administer CPR if you are certified. Summon medical personnel immediately.
Heavy bleeding is caused by injury to one or more large blood vessels. Lay the patient down. Control bleeding by applying firm pressure directly over the wound with a clean handkerchief, cloth, or your hand. If the injury is on an arm or leg, elevate the appendage above the level of the heart. Keep direct pressure on the wound for at least five (5) minutes. If direct pressure does not work, use a pressure point. A tourniquet should not be applied unless amputation or death is certain. EMS personnel should be called (dial 911) as soon as possible for any serious bleeding.
Shock usually accompanies severe injury. The signs of shock include less color in the face, a cold and clammy skin, weakness, nausea or vomiting, shallow breathing, and a rapid pulse that may be too faint to be felt at the wrist. The following procedures for the treatment of shock should be followed:
Seizures may occur for a number of reason, if a person starts to convulse, do not attempt to restrain them. Move any objects they may injure themselves on out of the way or pad them with clothing or paper. Place padding under the patients head and notify E.M.S. (by calling 911). Never try to open the person's mouth or place items between their teeth. Allow the seizure to take its course and then monitor the person's breathing and pulse. It will also be helpful if you can look for a medic-alert bracelet or necklace. If there are other people around, ask them to move away from the area once the seizure is over to offer the patient some privacy.
MISCELLANEOUS ILLNESSES AND INJURIES
After requesting medical aid, the following points should be addressed in specific emergencies:
CHEMICAL INGESTION OR CONTAMINATION
A. Ingestion of Chemicals
B. Chemicals Spilled on the Body over a Large Area
C. Chemicals on the Skin in a Confined Area
Lab Safety Guide